Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Political Party History Free Essays

Ideological group History Before the Democrat and Republican gatherings started their rule over American legislative issues, ideological groups were continually evolving. The principal parties looked like faction’s more than real gatherings. The nation’s government officials were known to pack together around a specific issue. We will compose a custom exposition test on Ideological group History or then again any comparable theme just for you Request Now These were generally an impression of social living in America. A change in ideological groups implied an adjustment in the manner in which Americans were experiencing their lives. Solid outsiders likewise helped impact the Democrat and Republican gatherings after they picked up control. Despite the fact that the names of gatherings change after some time, there have consistently been two gatherings of individuals taking inverse sides of a typical reason. The ideological group began when the discussion of confirming the constitution emerged. There was a part in how this new nation ought to be represented. On one side was the federalist, who were for the most part bolstered by the privileged. The rich land owners felt helpless to the open government that was beginning to be framed. They needed to ensure their political force. Then again the counter federalists, comprised of the lower classes, felt that a more grounded focal government would make a lot of defilement just as undermine the intensity of the individuals. These two groups in the long run isolated into two gatherings. The first was pushed by Alexander Hamilton and kept the Federalist name. Hamilton trusted in a solid national government having the vast majority of the power. Hamilton needed a solid industrialized nation with close connections to the homeland of England. Thomas Jefferson fronted the second party that was named the Democratic-republicans. Jefferson had confidence in an unassuming focal government giving most position to the individual states. Jefferson needed to avoid the conceivable defilement of industry and in this manner advanced an agrarian based economy. The Federalist Party immediately reached a conclusion when a split in the gathering happened because of the disputable administration of John Adams. With no restriction the Democratic Republicans continuously blurred away. This timespan comprising of no gatherings was known as the Era of Good Feelings. With the new thought of general white male testimonial, which gave the option to cast a ballot to every white man in the United States, there was a changeless move in power. Forthcoming lawmakers could not, at this point just kindness the propertied classes; rather they presently needed to concentrate on the center and lower classes concerns. This significant move strengthened another gathering, the Democratic Republicans drove by Andrew Jackson. The Democratic Republicans accepted that the nation ought to be represented under exacting adherence to the Constitution. They were against a national financial framework. They were likewise against governmentally supported inner enhancements since they felt it would be ridiculous impedance and unlawful. The rival side was the National Republicans and was driven by John Adams. This gathering put stock in supporting the national bank and supported every single inside progress. The National Republicans were additionally supporters of a solid focal government. Inevitably the National Republicans united with numerous other different gatherings to shape The Whig Party. The Democratic Republican Party abbreviated its name to the Democratic Party. The Democratic Party despite everything supported a constrained national government just as the standards of agrarianism. Democrats were ranchers who had confidence justified to claim slaves and supported regional development. As transportation enhancements expanded commercialization and the new majority rule governmental issues coaxed individuals out of localism into bigger systems, inquiries concerning national solidarity emerged. Since the Constitution left the government structure questionable every single sectional contradiction consequently became established issues. This drew out the incredible issue of patriotism versus sectionalism. The rival side named themselves the Whig Party. The Whigs drew their quality from the developing mechanical class. Most Whigs were business visionaries who supported urban development and free work. The Whigs party convictions were that of industrialization, they needed to grow financially and were supportive of governmentally supported interior enhancements as street and conduits. At last the issues over subjugation caused the partition of the Whig Party. The Kansas-Nebraska Act separated the Democratic Party. The Act opened up Kansas and Nebraska to choosing their slave status dependent on well known sway. This infuriated both the north and the south. By canceling the Compromise of 1820, the Act persuaded Northerners that the South was endeavoring to guarantee slavery’s predominance in the United States. The South observed Northern endeavors to impact Kansas into casting a ballot against bondage as attempting to upset the perceived leverage. The reaction of the demonstration made the Democratic Party split along sectionalist lines and made the Republican Party. This was the Nations first significant gathering made along sectional lines. The new Republican Parties principle objective was to stop the spread of subjection into the new domains. The gathering additionally needed to set up a levy that would secure the nations developing industry; besides they needed to enable poor pioneers to claim the land they settled in. The Southern Democrats made it plentifully certain that if a Republican won the Presidency the South would withdraw from the Union to safeguard its privileges. Soon after the Republican competitor Abraham Lincoln won the appointment of 1860 the South withdrew from the association. The South was anxious about the possibility that that a Republican President would annihilate their entitlement to claim slaves. The Democrats remained fractionalized during the Civil War. The Northern leftovers of the gathering split into three. First was the War Democrats who upheld the common war. Second, the Peace Democrats who needed a snappy political settlement with the South. Third, the Copperheads who straightforwardly contradicted the war and even deceived the Union to support the South. During this time the Republicans framed a brief coalition with the War Democrats, this new gathering was known as the Union Party. They picked a Republican Party presidential competitor with a War Democratic Party bad habit presidential up-and-comer. The Union party, despite the fact that it just went on for the length of the war, was a one of a kind time in American History. Never have two gatherings meet up to help a typical reason dismissing childish ideas of intensity and working past their disparities to safe the country. After the Civil war the Democratic Party rejoined as the primary restriction of the Republican Party. While their presidential up-and-comers have little possibility of being chosen, solid outsiders have advanced ideas and arrangements that were a significant piece of social and political lives. The Populist and Socialist gatherings support for decreased working hours prompted the Fair Labor Standards Act. These two gatherings additionally bolstered a dynamic expense framework that would put together a person’s charge obligation with respect to their measure of pay. This thought prompted the sanction of the sixteenth amendment. The Progressive party, or the Bull Moose party, advanced women’s testimonial and was in the long run bolstered by both Democratic and Republican gatherings which approved the19th Amendment giving ladies the option to cast a ballot. The Socialist Party moreover bolstered a reserve to give transitory remuneration to the jobless. The thought prompted the formation of laws building up joblessness protection and the Social Security Act. The American Independent gathering supported getting extreme on wrongdoing. The Republican Party embraced the thought in its foundation and the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act was the outcome. From the Revolution to Reconstruction, ideological groups bound together individuals having a similar essential standards into a methods for change. There has consistently been one gathering in the United States party framework that was consistently a severe mediator of the Constitution and needed to constrain the developing intensity of the government. The other supported a Constitutional understanding utilizing the flexible statement as a method of expanding government power. All through the main portion of American history parties advanced from minor coalitions of accommodation of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists to the complex political machines of the Democrats, Whigs, and later the Republicans. In spite of the fact that the names of ideological groups have changed after some time there have consistently been gatherings of individuals joined to facilitate their own ideological finishes. Book index USA Today. The Parties. 999-2000. Pearson Education. Presidential Elections. 1789-2004. 2007. Berg-Anderson, Richard E. A Brief History of American Major Parties. May21, 2001. http://www. thegreenpapers. com/Hx/AmericanMajorParties. html Hockett, Homer Carey. Political and Social Growth of the American People. New York: The Mackmillon Company, 1944. Accumulate, Richard L. Stebbins, Phillip E. Independence and Community. The Pennsy lvania State University, 1975. Hicks, John D. The American Nation. College of California, Berkeley1941. Step by step instructions to refer to Political Party History, Papers

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Dissolved Oxygen Essay

Oxygen in Liquids (DISSOLVED OXYGEN) Broken down Oxygen †the measure of disintegrated oxygen in a waterway as a sign of the level of the soundness of water and its capacity to help a fair oceanic biological system. Oxygen †is a reasonable, dreary, unscented, and dull gas that breaks up in water. Little yet significant measures of it are broken down in water. OXYGEN: Aquatic Life Depends on it Plants and Animals rely upon disintegrated oxygen for endurance. Absence of broke up oxygen can make amphibian creatures leave rapidly they are or face demise. Variables Affecting Oxygen Levels Temperature Pace of Photosynthesis Level of Light Penetration (turbidity and water profundity) Level of Water Turbulence or Wave activity The measure of oxygen utilized by breath and rot of natural issue Oxygen in a critical position Broken down Oxygen levels that are at 90% and 110% immersion level or higher reliably thought to be sound or acceptable. On the off chance that the Dissolved Oxygen are underneath 90%, there might be a lot of oxygen requesting materials. What Is Dissolved Oxygen In Water? Disintegrated oxygen in water is crucial for submerged life. It is the thing that amphibian animals need to relax. Why Is Dissolved Oxygen Important? Similarly as we need air to inhale, amphibian life forms need broke up oxygen to breathe. It is fundamental for the endurance of fish, spineless creatures, microscopic organisms, and submerged plants. How Is Dissolved Oxygen Measured? Broken up oxygen focus can be accounted for as milligrams per liter, parts per million, or as percent air immersion. Polarographic Cell It is fundamentally the same as the galvanic cell. Nonetheless, the polarographic cell has two respectable metal cathodes and requires a polarizing voltage to diminish the oxygen. The broke down oxygen in the example diffuses through the film into the electrolyte, which for the most part is a watery KC1 arrangement. In the event that there is a consistent polarizing voltage (normally 0.8 V) over the terminals, the oxygen is diminished at the cathode, and the subsequent current How is corresponding to the oxygen substance of the electrolyte. This present stream is identified as a sign of oxygen content. Galvanic Cell Every galvanic cell comprise of an electrolyte and two cathodes (Figure 8.43c). The oxygen substance of the electrolyte is balanced with that of the example. The response is unconstrained; no outer voltage is applied. In this response, the cathode diminishes the oxygen into hydroxide, consequently discharging four electrons for every atom of oxygen. These electrons cause a present move through the electrolyte.. The size of the present stream is in relation to the oxygen focus in the electrolyte. Course through Cells In the course through cells, the procedure test stream is risen through the electrolyte. The oxygen convergence of the electrolyte is subsequently in harmony with the sample’s oxygen content, and the subsequent particle current between the terminals is illustrative of this focus. These sorts of cells are typically furnished with inspecting comprising of (yet not constrained to) sifting and scouring parts and stream, weight, and temperature controllers. Thallium Cell Thallium cells are to some degree one of a kind in their working guideline and can't be ordered into the class of either galvanic or polarographic cells. Simultaneously, they are of the electrochemical kind. One thallium-anode cell configuration is to some degree comparative in appearance to the unit showed on Figure 8.43c aside from that it has no layer or electrolyte. This phone has a thallium external ring anode and an inward reference terminal. At the point when oxygen contacts the thallium, the potential created by the cell is a capacity ofâ the thallous particle fixation at the essence of the anode, and the particle focus is with respect to the centralization of broke up oxygen. Fluorescence-based Sensor For this situation, a compound containing ruthenium is immobilized in a gas-porous grid called a sol-gel. Sol-gels are exceptionally low-thickness, silica-based grids appropriate for immobilizing substance mixes, for example, the ruthenium compound utilized in this estimation strategy. Viably, the sol-gel is identical to the layer in a traditional DO sensor. Utilizing fiber optics, light from a light-producing diode is moved to the posterior of the sol-gel covering. The transmitted fluorescence is gathered from the posterior of the sol-gel with another optical fiber and its power is identified by photodiode. An improved sensor configuration is appeared in Figure 8.43g. On the off chance that no oxygen is available, the force of the produced light will be at its most extreme worth. In the event that oxygen is available, the fluorescence will be extinguished, and the produced power will diminish. Twinkler Titration The Winkler Method is a procedure used to quantify disintegrated oxygen in freshwater frameworks. Broken up oxygen is utilized as a pointer of the strength of a water body, where higher disintegrated oxygen fixations are connected with high efficiency and little contamination. Temperature Effects Weight Effects Saltiness Effects Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) Natural Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a proportion of the oxygen utilized by microorganisms to deteriorate this waste. On the off chance that there is a huge amount of natural waste in the water flexibly, there will likewise be a great deal of microscopic organisms present attempting to deteriorate this waste. For this situation, the interest for oxygen will be high (because of the considerable number of microorganisms) so the BOD level will be high. As the waste is devoured or scattered through the water, BOD levels will start to decay. Biochemical oxygen request (BOD) is a measure for the amount of oxygen required for the biodegradation of natural issue (carbonaceous interest) in water.It can likewise show the measure of oxygen used to oxidize decreased types of nitrogen (nitrogenous interest), except if their oxidation is forestalled by an inhibitor. A test is utilized to quantify the measure of oxygen devoured by these life forms during a predetermined timeframe (generally 5 days at 20 ÌŠÌŠÌŠÌŠC). Characterization: Body is devided in two sections which is Carbonaceous Oxygen Demand and the Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand. Carbonaceous Oxygen Demand †it is the measure of oxygen devoured by the microorganisms during deteriorating starch material. Nitrogenous Oxygen Demand †it is the measure of oxygen devoured by the microorganisms during deteriorating nitrogenous materials. Relationship of DO and BOD On the off chance that the Dissolve Oxygen (DO) of a water is high, the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)is low. In the event that the BOD of the water is hight, the DO is low.Therefore DO and BOD is contrarily Proportional to one another. Why we should need to know BOD? Body straightforwardly influences the measure of broke down oxygen in waterways and streams. The more prominent the BOD, the more quickly oxygen is exhausted in the stream. This implies less oxygen is accessible to higher types of amphibian life. The results of high BOD are equivalent to those for low broke up oxygen: oceanic life forms become focused on, choke, and bite the dust. Information on oxygen usage of a contaminated water flexibly is significant on the grounds that: 1. It is the proportion of the contamination load, comparative with oxygen usage by other life in the water; 2. It is the methods for foreseeing progress of oxygen consuming disintegration and the measure of self-purging occurring; 3. It is the proportion of the oxygen request load evacuation productivity by various treatment process. Elements that adds to varieties in BOD The Seed Is the bacterial culture that influences the oxidation of materials in the example. On the off chance that the natural seed isn't accustomed to the specific wastewater, wrong outcomes are every now and again got. pH The BOD results are likewise enormously influenced by the pH of the example, particularly on the off chance that it is lower than 6.5 or higher than 8.3. So as to accomplish uniform conditions, the example ought to be cradled to a pH of around 7. Temperature Standard test condition requires a temperature of 20 ÌŠC (68 ÌŠF). field tests regularly require activity at different temperatures and, therefore, the outcomes will in general shift except if temperature adjustments are applied. Poisonousness The nearness of poisonous materials may result increment in the BOD esteem as a particular example is dilluted for the BOD test.Consistent worth might be acquired either by expelling the harmful materials from the example or By building up a seed that is good with the harmful material in the example. Brooding Time The typical standard lab test hatching time is 5 days, results may happen at a level part or happen at a steeply rising portion.Depending on the kind of seed and the sort of oxidable material, unique outcome can be normal. Nitrification In the typical course BOD test, the oxygen utilization rises steeply toward the start of the test attributable to assault on sugar materials. Another sharp increment in oxygen use happens at some point during tenth to fifteenth day in those examples containing nitrogenous materials. How we decide or measure BOD? Five-Day BOD Procedure The BOD test takes 5 days to finish and is performed utilizing a broke down oxygen test pack. The BOD level is controlled by contrasting the DO level of a water test taken quickly with the DO level of a water test that has been hatched in a dim area for 5 days. The distinction between the two DO levels speaks to the measure of oxygen required for the decay of any natural material in the example and is a decent estimate of the BOD level. Test strategies: 1. Take 2 examples of water 2. Record the DO level (ppm) of one promptly utilizing the technique portrayed in the disintegrated oxygen test. 3. Spot the subsequent water test in a hatchery in complete obscurity at 20oC for 5days. In the event that you don’t have a hatchery, wrap the water test bottle in aluminum foil or dark electrical tape and store in a dull spot at room temperature (20 ÌŠC or 68  °F). 4. Following 5 days, take another broke up oxygen perusing (ppm) utilizing the disintegrated oxygen test pack. 5. Take away the Day 5 readin

Monday, August 17, 2020

More thoughts on classes

More thoughts on classes Dear November, 2009: Ive reached the age when self-discoveries are easier to find than my room keys, or the chunk of free time missing from my daily agenda, or even sources of Vitamin C. To start with a simple example- I prefer my classes the way I prefer local fire departments: fast, helpful, and hosing. This semester, 8.07 (Electricity and Magnetism II) takes the proverbial cake for hopscotching around my criteria for likable classes. The first ten weeks or so straddled a slender line between geekishly fun and downright scary. On one hand, its hard to complain about a class where the professor spends 5 minutes playing the Electrostatic Video Game in the middle of his lecture slides* and then inexplicably flings his USB drive into the door using a makeshift rubber-band slingshot. (I believe he was attempting to demonstrate something about tension in field lines, but the lesson was sadly overshadowed by the fact that his USB drive looked pretty expensive.) *All seven people in attendance during this lecture burst into applause as the Positive Charge bounced off a wall, hovered in a precarious moment of unstable equilibrium, and slowly rolled into the target. It was the most breathtaking thing Id ever experienced, but only because I dont have asthma. On the other hand, the class this year was taught backwards, starting with the gnarliest subject in the entirety of 8.07: dipole radiation. Have you ever seen a dipole radiate? The thing spews out enough math to educate a third-world village. } (This is what happens when I stop taking photos. Its supposed to be a graphical representation of an oscillating dipole, alright? As I always say, MIT admissions values tolerance.) On the third hand, there was a warm and cherished moment in 8.07 when the curriculum abruptly leaped from relativistic dipole radiation to Coulombs Law. Did you know that Im probably one of the few people in human history who learned the Liv ©nardâ€"Wiechert formulation of potentials for a moving point charge before learning electrostatics? By the way, the problem set for that particular week was far more bipolar than dipolar: one question was along the lines of, “Find the force on a line charge in a uniform electric field, but use the Maxwell Stress Tensor and do a spherical integral over infinity only after converting your basis vectors into Cartesian. Also, while youre solving easy problems using the hardest method imaginable, carve a turkey using toothpicks, but only after you convert your toothpicks into a small wooden flotilla.” The next question was like, “Find the magnetic field due to a current-carrying wire. HINT: Use Amperes Law!!!11 HINT #2: The circumference of a c ircle is 2*r*pi.” “What about your other physics classes?” you ask. Well, let me prelude my good-humored kvetchfest by remarking that I have nothing to complain about and that it took quite a few yardsticks of imagination to come up with the following criticisms. Its also worth mentioning mention that Im only 35-50%* serious here: please keep in mind that all of the following are, at worst, only as mildly painful as getting punched in the kneecaps by someone wearing mittens. If you want to understand the true heartstabbing pain of MIT, you can also keep in mind that I will be repaying tuition loans for the next ten years. Now, if youll excuse me, I need to go chug a bottle of aspirin. (*Even outside of the esteemed blogging profession, Im around 55% serious at best. By “at best,” I of course mean, “at funerals.”) -8.03 (Vibrations and Waves) is a perfectly reasonable class until you realize that its full of propaganda, just like television (whose existence is due to none other than VIBRATIONS AND WAVES. Coincidence? I think not). According to 8.03, vibrations and waves created light, made the world in six days, rested on Sunday, and then invented evolution, thereby ensuring that thousands of unsuspecting children would continue to buy Pokemon cards (the most expensive of which contain reflective holograms, whose properties are due to none other than VIBRATIONS AND WAVES. Coincidence? I think not.). The first one may actually be true, but I refuse to accept the premise that waves are mankinds only remaining hope for salvation. I mean, otherwise, Barack Obama wouldnt have won the Nobel Peace Prize, right?. No OCW am I, but heres my stab at summarizing the 8.03 course material: -A wave on a spring is a wave. -A wave on a rope is a wave. -A wave in a pipe is a wave. -A wave on a transmission line is a wave. -A wave in vacuum is a wave. -A wave is also called a vibration sometimes. Did I tell you the name of this class, by the way? -8.033 (Relativity): I will heartlessly say that 8.033 makes electricity and magnetism look like clumsy squash players stumbling around in a ballroom full of elegant, waltzing kinematics, firstly because I hate playing/eating squash and secondly because I think this is some sort of metaphor or whatever. In the first half of the course, each lovely transformation and kinematics equation was tastefully attired in immaculate thought experiments before its initiation into the polite society of established physics. Yet as soon as EM clodhopped into the room, dripping with murky math and shod in raggedy logic, the exalted sophistication of relativity spiraled down the metaphorical toilet of terrible curriculum design. You could hear the flush as soon as we started transforming Coulombs Law in like 32939 different scenarios of relative motion between source charge and test charge. Introducing EM by applying the force transformation laws to Coulomb was like smearing dirt over the brilliant c onnections between EM and Special Relativity. Why not link the fields to the intrinsic properties of space and time, and then deduce how they must look to an observer moving at relativistic speeds, such as Lance Armstrong? To be fair, we probably discussed this in recitation for about 20 minutes. Lance Armstrong, that is. (Just kidding. I can assure you that we learn more about cyclic permutations than cyclist permutations in 8.033 recitation.) Also, the flavortext (yes, flavortext) on the Problem Sets is about as straightforward as the nonexistent Star Trek episode written by Richard Nixon. Example: Buckethead and Ry Cooder, two guitar masters who are completely unrelated and look nothing at all alike, meet at Antones, the famous blues club in Austin. Ry is scheduled to play the first one-hour set, with Buckethead immediately to follow. To while away the time, Buckethead hops in his motorized chicken coop and drives west at con- stant acceleration a = (5=3) ¬ £ 106 m=s2 for precisely 30 minutes (as measured by his dashboard clock) at which point he slams on the breaks, stopping the coop almost instantly, turns around, and drives back, again at constant acceleration a. After precisely one hour on his clock he arrives back at Antones, slams on the breaks again, and walks in for his set smack on time. Importantly, all along his trip, Buckethead maintained a perfect soulful C on his monster Jackson King V. Meanwhile, back at Antones, Ry plays an awesome set, closing with his classic version of Woodie Guthries Vigilante Man (as recorded on Into the Purple Valley). As the song ends, perfectly on time, he holds out the last note, keeping it ringing until Buckethead walks back in at the end of his trip. Note: some details about the real world you should neglect in solving this problem: ¬= The earth is round. Lets treat it as flat and infnite { bucketheads coop always stays in contact with the ground. ¬= Since a is roughly 20,000 g, the acceleration would crush any human inside the coop. Dont worry, Buckethead is not human. ¬= To stop the coop on a dime would require absurdly wonderful breaks. Yes, its an awesome chicken coop. Dare I venture any further comment? You know that somethings awry with your problem set when the hardest part of the question is figuring out that its a question. Anyway, the moral of the story is that physics can be crushing, but theres nothing to worry about. Buckethead is not human.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Lieutenant General John Burgoyne in the American Revolution

General John Burgoyne was a noted 18th century British Army officer who is best remembered for his defeat at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777. First seeing service during the War of the Austrian Succession, he later earned fame as a cavalry officer and leader during the Seven Years War. In this period, he formed his own cavalry unit and commanded troops in Portugal. With the beginning of the American Revolution in 1775, Burgoyne was one of several officers dispatched to Boston. Seeing little opportunity in the post, Burgoyne departed and returned to North America the following year with reinforcements for Canada. While there, he conceived of the idea for what would become the Saratoga Campaign. Given permission to move forward in 1777, his army was ultimately blocked, defeated, and captured by American forces. Paroled, Burgoyne returned to Britain in disgrace. General John Burgoyne Rank: GeneralService: British ArmyNickname(s): Gentleman JohnnyBorn: February 24, 1722 in Sutton, EnglandDied: August 4, 1792 in London, EnglandParents: Captain John Burgoyne and Anna Maria BurgoyneSpouse: Charlotte StanleyChildren: Charlotte Elizabeth BurgoyneConflicts: Seven Years War, American RevolutionKnown For: Battle of Saratoga (1777) Early Life Born February 24, 1722 at Sutton, England, John Burgoyne was the son of Captain John Burgoyne and his wife Anna. There is some thought that the young Burgoyne may have been the illegitimate son of Lord Bingley. Burgoynes godfather, Bingley specified in his will that the young man should receive his estate if his daughters failed to produce any male heirs. Beginning in 1733, Burgoyne began attending the Westminster School in London. While there, he befriended Thomas Gage and James Smith-Stanley, Lord Strange. In August 1737, Burgoyne entered the British Army by purchasing a commission in the Horse Guards. Early Career Based in London, Burgoyne became known for his fashionable uniforms and earned the nickname Gentleman Johnny. A known gambler, Burgoyne sold his commission in 1741. Four years later, with Britain involved in the War of the Austrian Succession, Burgoyne returned to the army by obtaining cornets commission in the 1st Royal Dragoons. As the commission was newly created, he was not required to pay for it. Promoted to lieutenant later that year, he took part in the Battle of Fontenoy that May and made repeated charges with his regiment. In 1747, Burgoyne pulled together sufficient funds to purchase a captaincy. Elopement With the wars end in 1748, Burgoyne began courting Stranges sister, Charlotte Stanley. After his proposal of marriage was blocked by Charlottes father, Lord Derby, the couple elected to elope in April 1751. This action infuriated Derby who was a prominent politician and he cut off his daughters financial support. Lacking active service, Burgoyne sold his commission for  £2,600 and the couple began traveling around Europe. Spending extensive time in France and Italy, he became friends with the Duc de Choiseul who would later oversee French policy during the Seven Years War. Additionally, while in Rome, Burgoyne has his portrait painted by famed Scottish artist Allan Ramsay.   Following the birth of their only child, Charlotte Elizabeth, the couple elected to return to Britain. Arriving in 1755, Strange interceded on their behalf and the couple reconciled with Lord Derby. Using his influence, Derby aided Burgoyne in obtaining a captaincy in the 11th Dragoons in June 1756. Two years later he moved to the Coldstream Guards and ultimately achieved the rank of lieutenant colonel. With the Seven Years War raging, Burgoyne took part in the June 1758 raid on St. Malo. Landing in France, his men remained for several days while British forces burned French shipping. 16th Dragoons Later that year, Burgoyne went ashore during Captain Richard Howes raid on Cherbourg. This saw British forces land and successfully storm the town. A proponent of light cavalry, Burgoyne was appointed to command the 16th Dragoons, one of two new light regiments, in 1759. Rather than delegate recruiting duties, he directly oversaw the construction of his unit and personally courted the landed gentry in Northamptonshire to become officers or encourage others to enlist. To entice potential recruits, Burgoyne advertised that his men would have the finest horses, uniforms, and equipment. A popular commander, Burgoyne encouraged his officers to mix with their troops and desired his enlisted men to be free thinking in battle. This approach was enshrined in a revolutionary code of conduct he wrote for the regiment. Additionally, Burgoyne encouraged his officers to take time each day to read and encouraged them to learn French as the best military texts were in that language. Portugal In 1761, Burgoyne was elected to Parliament representing Midhurst. A year later, he was dispatched to Portugal with the rank of brigadier general. Following the loss of Almeida to the Spanish, Burgoyne boosted Allied moral and earned fame for his capture of Valencia de Alcà ¡ntara. That October, he again triumphed when he defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Vila Velha. In the course of the fighting, Burgoyne directed Lieutenant Colonel Charles Lee to attack a Spanish artillery position which was successfully captured. In recognition of his service, Burgoyne received a diamond ring from the King of Portugal and later had his portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds. With the end of the war, Burgoyne returned to Britain and in 1768 was again elected to Parliament. An effective politician, he was named the governor of Fort William, Scotland in 1769. Outspoken in Parliament, he became concerned about Indian affairs and regularly attacked Robert Clive as well as corruption in the East India Company. His efforts ultimately led to the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773 which worked to reform the companys management. Promoted to major general, Burgoyne wrote plays and verse in his spare time. In 1774, his play The Maid of the Oaks was staged at the Drury Lane Theater. American Revolution With the beginning of the American Revolution in April 1775, Burgoyne was dispatched to Boston along with Major Generals William Howe and Henry Clinton. Though he did not take part in the Battle of Bunker Hill, he was present at the Siege of Boston. Feeling the assignment lacked opportunity, he elected to return home in November 1775. The following spring, Burgoyne led the British reinforcements which arrived in Quebec. Serving under Governor Sir Guy Carleton, Burgoyne aided in driving American forces from Canada. Critical of Carletons cautiousness after the Battle of Valcour Island, Burgoyne sailed for Britain. Arriving, he began lobbying Lord George Germain, Secretary of State for the Colonies, to approve his campaign plans for 1777. These called for a large British army to advance south from Lake Champlain to capture Albany. This would be supported by a smaller force approaching from the west via the Mohawk Valley. The final element would see Howe advance north up the Hudson River from New York. Planning for 1777 The cumulative effect of the campaign would be to sever New England from the rest of the American Colonies. This plan was approved by Germain in early 1777 despite word from Howe that he intended to march against Philadelphia that year. Confusion exists as to when Germain informed Burgoyne that participation by British forces in New York City would be limited at best. As Clinton had been defeated at Charleston, SC in June 1776, Burgoyne was able to secure command of the northern invasion force. Arriving in Canada on May 6, 1777, he assembled an army of over 7,000 men. The Saratoga Campaign Initially delayed by transport issues, Burgoynes army did not begin moving up Lake Champlain until late June. As his forces advanced on the lake, Colonel Barry St. Legers command moved west to execute the thrust through the Mohawk Valley. Believing the campaign would be simple, Burgoyne was soon dismayed when few Native Americans and Loyalists joined his forces. Arriving at Fort Ticonderoga in early July, he quickly compelled Major General Arthur St. Clair to abandon the post. Sending troops in pursuit of the Americans, they defeated part of St. Clairs forces at Hubbardton on July 7. Regrouping, Burgoyne pushed south towards Forts Anne and Edward. His advance was slowed by American forces which felled trees and burned bridges along the route. In mid-July, Burgoyne received word from Howe that he intended to sail for Philadelphia and would not be coming north. This bad news was compounded by a rapidly worsening supply situation as the army lacked sufficient transport that could traverse the regions rough roads. In mid-August, Burgoyne dispatched a force of Hessians on a foraging mission. Meeting American troops, they were badly defeated at Bennington on August 16. The defeat bolstered American morale and caused many of Burgoynes Native Americans to leave. The British situation further deteriorated when St. Leger was defeated at Fort Stanwix and forced to retreat. Surrender of Burgoyne by John Trumbull. Photograph Courtesy of the Architect of the Capitol Defeat at Saratoga Learning of St. Legers defeat on August 28, Burgoyne elected to cut his supply lines and quickly drive on Albany with the goal of making winter quarters there. On September 13, his army began crossing the Hudson just north of Saratoga. Pushing south, it soon encountered American forces led by Major General Horatio Gates which had entrenched on Bemis Heights. On September 19, American forces led by Major General Benedict Arnold and Colonel Daniel Morgan defeated Burgoynes men at Freemans Farm. With their supply situation critical, many of the British commanders recommended a retreat. Unwilling to fall back, Burgoyne again attacked on October 7. Defeated at Bemis Heights, the British withdrew to their camp. In the wake of the action, American forces surrounded Burgoynes position. Unable to break out, he surrendered on October 17. Later Career Paroled, Burgoyne returned to Britain in disgrace. Attacked by the government for his failures, he attempted to reverse the accusations by blaming Germain for failing to order Howe to support his campaign. Unable to obtain a court martial to clear his name, Burgoyne changed political allegiances from the Tories to the Whigs. With the Whig ascent to power in 1782, he returned to favor and served as commander in chief in Ireland and a privy councillor. Leaving government a year later, he effectively retired and focused on literary pursuits. Burgoyne died suddenly at his Mayfair home on June 3, 1792. He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Film Analysis-Spartacus, Full Metal Jacket Free Essays

Having viewed in class five of Stanley Kubrick’s films and a documentary about him, a decent understanding of Kubrick’s process and vision is learnt; the two films Spartacus and Full Metal Jacket were the most inspirational and significan films of the bunch. Spartacus is about a rebellious (slave of the same name) purchased by Lentulus Batiatus, owner of a school for gladiators. For the entertainment of corrupt Roman senator Marcus Licinius Crassus, Batiatus’ gladiators fight to the death. We will write a custom essay sample on Film Analysis-Spartacus, Full Metal Jacket or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the night before the event, the enslaved are â€Å"treated† with female companionship. Spartacus refuses to engage with Varinia, a slave from Brittania, and they form a sturdy relationship. When Spartacus later learns that Varinia has been sold to Crassus, along with the murders of his brothers (the slaves forced to fight), this ignites a burning desire inside him, a yearning to seek freedom. He leads fellow gladiators in revolt, and they flee out of Italy collecting money as they go, in order to buy sea transportation from the pirates of Cilicia. They are united by additional runaways, which transform the rogue slaves into a colossal army; escaping to join his cause is Varinia, who has fallen in love with Spartacus, and Antoninus. Crassus bribes the pirates to abandon Spartacus and pushes them toward Rome, were panic that Spartacus means to attack the city, causes the Senate to give Crassus absolute power. In the battle, most of the slave army is killed by Crassus’ forces. Afterward, when the Romans try to locate Spartacus, every surviving man shields him by shouting â€Å"I’m Spartacus! Varinia and her new son are held prisoner by Crassus who forces Spartacus to fight Antoninus to the death, the survivor is to be crucified, along with all the other men captured after the battle. Spartacus wins the match and is crucified, this leaves Spartacus with the potential to become a martyr. Batiatus rescues Spartacus’ family from Crassus and carries them away to freedom. Varinia is able to comfort him in his dyin g moments by showing him his little son, who will grow up without ever having been a slave. The movie was created to depict the brutal and unforgiving Roman Empire and the hardships the average slave could endure every day. It also shows anti slavery propaganda and the story not only of one’s man’s quest to revolt against his oppressors and to rise up from a state of disempowerment, but more importantly it is a story which offers hope and strength to mankind. The act of sacrifice is a dominant theme in the film and is essential to the idea of Spartacus’ character. Sacrifice is first seen before the revolt when the Draba, after defeating Spartacus in battle, refuses to kill Spartacus and instead sacrifices himself by attempting to attack Crassus. It this act inspires Spartacusand his actions for the rest of the film. Spartacus also proclaims during the film that everything he has done will be a success if his son can be born free, regardless of whether Spartacus is killed or not. In the final act of sacrifice Spartacus is crucified, sharing similarities with Jesus and his sacrifice for all mankind. Associated with sacrifice is the fight for freedom. Sacrifice is knowing that there might be a point were things must be used for the greater good and dying is a possibility, while fighting for freedom is having the courage to stand up for beliefs, never backing down and starting the movement to end oppression. This is shown when Spartacus is crucified, becoming a martyr and thus creating his legend. The path to freedom is the one goal that all the slaves had in common the thing that kept them united and strong. It gave them the strentgh to continue their journey and put everything on the line, with hope for the future as the backbone of their fighting spirit. This is put in the film to show the power that one man can create when uniting people under a common goal. In our society freedom is everything, without it we would all be the same, with no individuality or passion, not truly being alive. This helps the audience relate to the slaves and form a connection with them as they too would be quite upset if they were in the same coditions. The film takes a strong look at political lobbying and the corruption of goverment. In our society many feel as if the goverment tries to control and limit their freedoms, while the poloticians are greedy and many don’t come through on the promises they make. They are seen as untrustworthy and unhelpful causeing many to try to take actions into their own hands. The film shows how people of political status abused their power and used any means to achieve their goals. This is shown constantly throught out the film, one example is how Crassus and his rival Gracchus fight over control of the Roman army when the Roman Senate sees Spartacus and crew as a threat. Gracchus own protege, a young Julius Caesar goes over to Crassus, when Gracchus reveals that he has bribed the Cilicians to get Spartacus out of Italy and rid Rome of the slave army. Kubrick wanted to show modern people how Rome’s republic and upperclasses were much more cutthroat and savage than our own, but at the same time not that dissimilar to the average modern poloticians in today’s world. Some people may view Spartacus and frown upon the savage slavery and brutality of the ancient world, but the fight for freedom from oppression and the common man rising to greatness through bravery is something that will forever be remember and celebrated by all cultures. The second film Full Metal Jacket begins by following a platoon of Marine Corps recruits, focusing on the relationship between Sergeant Hartman and Privates Pyle and Joker. The second chapter continues with Joker, and how he joined the Corps to become a killer, but is mostly behind the scenes, as a combat correspondent. This is interupted when the Tet offensive puts him in real combat and tests him on his real worth as a soilder, and if he really is a killer. Full Metal Jacket demonstrates the psychological break down of the soilders, as seen with the transformation of the character Pvt. Pyle. He comes to the Marine Corps as a naive, harmless young man who is guided by the belief that he is serving his country. Due to his failings of performing the tasks presented to him, he is constantly verbally and physically insulted by the drill instructor, Sgt. Hartman. Along with the torment from his drill instructor Pyle recieves additional abuse from his fellow recrits, beauase of the punishments they recieve due to his failures. In retaliation, the platoon hazes Pyle with a blanket party, restraining him to his bunk and beating him with bars of soap wrapped in towels. Joker, the Pvt. Squad leader, seeks to help Pyle, but as Pyle starts to become more productive, Joker recognizes signs of mental breakdown in Pyle, such as him talking to his M14 rifle. The internal struggle in the mind, is a characteristic of every human being, one that all can relate to. Humans all contain that good verses evil, that little devil on the left shoulder and the angle on the right. Kubrick uses this to make the audience sympathetic towards Pyle, but also for them to really think about what the story is trying to show and how this also plays a role in their lives. Private Joker had on his helmet â€Å"Born to kill† but on his uniform he had a peace symbol. This was an incredible symbolic representation of the film because it was exactly what Kubrick was trying to establish in the audiences minds; the change in ones mind during war and the struggle that continues to take place during war between good and evil were represented between the born to kill on his helmet and the peace symbol on his chest. Joker can be seen as another victim of war, due to his being inthe back, when he finally kills someone, he achieves the thousand-yard stare, a limp, unfocused gaze of a battle-weary soldier. The film is successful in providing a perspective glance at the trials of a soldier. Like with most war movies, it relies heavely on powerful imagery; the film also adds the sense of â€Å"thereness† at boot camp, the sickening feeling from the sight of dead bodies, and the perspective from an enemy sniper. They force you to look at the world and don’t let you look away, or pretend, when things are gruesome, or violent, or terrible. Full Metal Jacket’ examines the morality of war and military existence. This was significant because it showed one how much the United States Military officials had to change ones mind set and character to be able to fight and kill men, women and children who were just defending their country in a country that no one was used to and that some did not even know was there. The audience leaves the film with Kubrick’s selective snapshot of the Marine Corps and of Vietnam, hopefully with some sense of a soldier’s reaction to it all. How to cite Film Analysis-Spartacus, Full Metal Jacket, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Fostering Reflective Capacity Education †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Fostering Reflective Capacity Education. Answer: Introduction: The reflective writing is considered as an analytical practice which is characterized by the personal experience, events, opinions and the new information so that a level of self-knowledge can be achieved (Armstrong et al. 2014). It is being written in first person and the writer usually revisits the particular scenario concerned and expresses the concerned meanings or emotions. A lot of additional learning is being revealed and it is often referred to as the processing phase in which thinking takes place. The reflective writing demands that one is able to bring in valuable knowledge to each experience. It acts an important connection between what is known already and what is being learnt at present. The reflective writing is an excellent process of becoming aware, active and critical learner. The reflective writing is not always used for revealing personal information but is also used for writing in response of gaining new information. This kind of writing is used both for academic as well as non-academic purposes. The reflective writing is usually informal, however, on certain occasions like cover letter or case report, it can be formal also. The reflective writing is also good for idea generation and gathers number of ideas on the same topic. The topic is concerned with the consideration which is associated with the HR planning process of various events. The HR planning is concerned with the minute details of the attributes of manpower planning process along with the HR strategy and objectives (Nagendra and Deshpande 2014). The guiding strategies for the human resource planning for the events should be noted well. I have learnt the fact the HR planning for the events is a completely different one and it is usually different from the usual HR planning processes take place in the organizations. I have learnt the fact that in order to have a massive and successful event, it is important to plan the HR processes well. I have learnt the essential concepts of the course through the help of reading the lecture slides. The class notes helped me to have a clear idea about the topic and its essential steps. The audiovisual tools helped me to grab the idea of topic in a clear manner. I have realized the fact that the events are complex in nature and they have a lot of stakeholders that are involved in it. This requires the intervention of an effective HR process for which a subsequent level of planning should be done. Without the knowledge of the planning process of HR tasks, it would be difficult to coordinate between the various tasks of the events. I have learnt that there are around eight steps for planning the HR processes during an event. This starts from the HR planning context and end at the evaluation of the planning process. The manpower needed to function an event can be planned by the help of the theory learnt in this course module. The topic on strategic planning is about the process concerned with the goal of the event or the organization and how to achieve the same. The strategic planning can be considered as one of the most important organizational management activity in which there is setting of priorities, resources and the strengthening the operational processes (Cassidy 2016). I have learnt from this topic that the strategic planning process in the event organizations is important and it should be customized based on the changing circumstances of the external as well as internal environment. I have learnt the complex process of strategy planning and important steps associated with it. I have learnt about the key attributes of the feasibility study. I have learnt not only the strategic planning process but I have also learnt about the different types of organizational structures that are evident in the organizations. This would help me to devise organizational strategies in a better manner. The main challenge I faced was that I didnt get any practical orientation of the organizational structures. The strategic plan is the foundation of any event and it is performed before the conceptualization of an event. The mission statement of the event can be applied to the stage when the event is conceptualized and subsequent planning is done. The topic for this module is working in teams which are involved with sustaining commitment, urgency and motivation among the workplace employees. The people in the same organization are said to perform together in order to achieve common organizational goals (Coyle and Croker 2014). I have learnt the various characteristics of teams and how they function in a typical workplace environment. Some of the common team myths have been identified and I have also learnt the various positive as well as negative attributes of team cohesion. I have learnt the various stages of the team development and the various decision-making options. The various conflicts based situations and their causes are also identified. I have learnt the theoretical attributes of the team work from the lecture slides and I have learnt about the practical aspects of the team work when I was working with my colleagues. We worked in teams of five people, when I actually learnt about the attributes of team cohesion. I should know about the various benefits of team work. I have witnessed that successful team work is responsible for higher team productivity and the successful accomplishment of the organizational objectives. It is important to know about team work as it encourages innovation as well as creativity in the team. If I am unaware of the team work, then I would not be able to manage conflicts that arise in a team. An event comprises of number of members, processes, stakeholders and large number of operating units, which needs to be managed well. Each unit is mutually dependant on the others and hence it is important to apply the principles of team work here. After going through the course, I would be able to understand the key attributes of various key concepts such as team work, HR planning and the strategic planning process of the organization. Earlier, I used to give least attention to the HR planning process as well as strategic planning process, but now I have realized the importance of these processes in an event. I would engage in the manpower planning and planning of the major deliverables in the event as it would increase the effectiveness of the event. I have learnt the fact it is important to aid in conflict resolution as conflicts tend to reduce the productivity of the team. I have understood the importance of team work and how to make team cohesion. I have realized the fact that team cohesion has clear expectations, positive energy exchange of ideas, resolve of disputes and open communication between all the key stakeholders. I have also learnt how to balance various kinds of conflicts arising in the team. I have learnt the attributes of the goal-setting process of the organization. I would ask my colleagues to use the process of SMART objectives so that an effective goal can be made. I have done the various attributes of the situational analysis and would ask my team mates to use SWOT process when analyzing a particular business situation. I have also learnt the various details of the staffing needs of the events and how job analysis is done. I have learnt the different stages of the HR planning process for an event. I would use the various information learnt from this course in my future career. I would use the HR planning process to plan my manpower and the event process. I would also use the principles learnt in this course to manage various levels of conflicts. References Armstrong, G.A., Kofman, A., Sharpless, J.J., Anthony, D. and Wald, H.S., 2014. Bringing our whole person to whole person care: Fostering reflective capacity with interactive reflective writing in health professions education.International Journal of Whole Person Care,1(1). Cassidy, A., 2016.A practical guide to information systems strategic planning. CRC press. Coyle, J. and Croker, A., 2014. Working in Teams. InHealth Practice Relationships(pp. 65-74). SensePublishers. Nagendra, A. and Deshpande, M., 2014. Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) in HR planning and development in mid to large sized organizations.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,133, pp.61-67.