Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Inclusion - Special Educational Needs - Essay Example and b., in the absence of the special educational provisions (Sec. 312 Education Act 1996) (Blackpool Council, 2009) educational provisions that are in addition to or happen to be inherently different from the educational provisions extended to the other students of the same age group in the academic institutions run by the Local Authorities (Blackpool Council, 2009). There are many children who face learning disabilities of one kind or other during their school years. Children having special educational needs may require extra help while dealing with a range of areas in their schools that include: Generally speaking, making provisions for the children with special educational needs in the secondary education is a very humane approach towards education and is in consonance with the contemporary Western ideals pertaining to education. Every child deserves a chance to make the best of his/her abilities and the inherent disabilities in no way should hamper a child from pursuing proper education and academic aspirations. However, the concept of SEN took a relatively long time to become an integral part of the British education system. The Education Act of 1944 strived to define special educational needs in terms of concrete and discernable medical disabilities. The Warnock Report of 1978 that preceded the 1981 Education Act revolutionized the concept of special educational needs, that became much more inclusive in its approach and aspired to define the learning disabilities in terms of the "common educational goals for all children" (House of Commons Educational and Skills Committee, 2005: 11). The ensuing legislations stressed upon the need for not discriminating against the children with special educational needs. However, the 1981 Education Act failed to make ample financial provisions for statementing and teacher training. Through out the 90s despite the existence of Warnock Framework, there was a marked decline in the number of children in special schools and a steady rise in the number of children identified as having special educational needs (House of Commons Educational and Skills Committee, 2005: 13). T he Labour government tried to align the state standing in consonance with the UN Statement on Special Needs Education 1994, in the form of 1997 Green Paper 'Excellence for All Children Meeting Special Educational Needs (House of Commons Education and Skills Committee, 2005: 11). Thus for the first time the state tried to make a genuine and sincere effort to incorporate the
Monday, January 27, 2020
Estimate Waterfowl Nests on Monte Vista National Wildlife USING DISTANCE SAMPLING TO ESTIMATE WATER FOWL NESTS ON MONTE VISTAÃ NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, COLORADO, USA Principal Investigator Nicole J. Traub, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, 275 UCB, A Research Proposal ProjectÃ Justification Measuring nest success is extremely important in order to determine the well-being of avianÃ populations. Biologists have been attempting to infer the status of avian species by estimating rates of births and deaths to determine population growth and stability (Johnson, 1979; Newson et al., 2008). One measure of avian birth rate that is easy to gauge is the percentage of nests that hatch, which is used as an indirect measure of reproduction (Johnson, 1979). Nest success rates can also be used to hypothesis causes for declines in avian populations, i.e. habitat degradation,Ã predation, overhunting, disease, environmental contaminants, etc. (Beauchamp et al., 1996). Nest success is defined as a nest in which at least one egg hatched and the presence of detached shell membranes is the best evidence that eggs hatched (Klett et al., 1986). Nest failure usually results from predation but they may have been abandoned if the hens are disturbed during the early stages of egg laying (Klett et al., 1986). Transect sampling is widely used by wildlife managers and researchers to estimate population sizes of inanimate and animate objects (Newson et al., 2008). Transect studies designed to estimate inanimate object population size, such as waterfowl nests, usually proceed as follows: the area to be sampled is defined; random (or systematic) transect lines are placed throughout the area; transects are searched to record the detection of the study object (Anderson and Pospahala,Ã 1970). Bias is unavoidable in population size (density) estimates; therefore, it is important to recognize the source(s) of bias and adjust for them. An important source of bias lies in the transect sampling methods themselves. If some objects are not detected, then the expanded population estimate will be lower than the true population size unless adjustments are made (Burnham et al., 1980; Buckland et al., 2001). This source of bias is very important when detecting objects that are small, secretive, or well con cealed; however, when detecting large or inanimate objects, this source of bias may be of little importance (Anderson and Pospahala,Ã 1970). The basic output from line transect sampling is the encounter rate, which is the number of detections per distance walked. This method can be used to estimate relative density but it does not account for detectability which can vary depending on the study object and habitat (Marshall et al., 2008). In order to compensate for incomplete counts and problems with detectability, one can measure the distance from the transect to each observation (distance sampling) (Burnham and Anderson, 1984). The sample population is then the area sampled rather than the objects of interest. For example, the population sampled is a population of line transects in a given area, each line transect is a sample unit, and the object of interest (waterfowl nests) is the variate associated with each transect (Anderson and Posahala, 1970; Marshall et al., 2008). Four assumptions must be met in order to make valid inferences about population densities using distance sampling (in order of importance): (1) all objects that fall on the transect line are detected with certainty; (2) objects do not move either away from or towards the observer prior to detection; (3) perpendicular distance data are measure accurately; and (4) all detections are independent of each other (Burnham and Anderson, 1984; Buckland et al., 2001). These assumptions can be violated in many ways including, but not limited to, inexperienced or untrained observers, lack of interest in the observer, fatigue, speed of travel down the transect, transect width, habitat type, time of day, season, sun angle, inclement weather, object size, shape, coloration, and habits (Burnham and Anderson, 1984; Buckland et al., 2001; Marshall et al., 2008). Both strip transects and line transects can be useful measures of population density. However, the key difference between them is that density can be estimated using line transects based on distance without some of the bias innate to strip transects. Line transects require only the perpendicular distance to the object. In contrast, strip transect density estimates are usually low because not all objects in the strip are detected (Burnham et al., 1980; Burnham and Anderson,Ã 1984; Buckland et al., 2001). A previous study completed on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge (Anderson and Posahala, 1970) estimated waterfowl nest density using strip transects with a narrow width (8.25 ft. each side). This method is impractical and inefficient for sampling large areas since an insufficient number of objects may be detected after covering great distances (Anderson and Posahala, 1970). In contrast, this project proposes to utilize distance sampling with systematically placed line transects to obtain a full waterfowl nest census in order to determine nest distribution, nest success, and nest density. Objectives The purpose of this study is to test the possibility of employing a distance-based samplingÃ protocol utilizing line transects to estimate waterfowl nest density. Specifically, the objectives are to: 1. Evaluate and expand upon previous density estimates of waterfowl nests in theÃ Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. 2. Determine if line transect sampling is more efficient than strip transect sampling for calculating waterfowl nest density. 3. Implement a distance-based line transect approach to calculating: a. Number of successful nests b. Number of depredated nests c. Total number of nests MethodsÃ andÃ Study Design The general survey design will follow Anderson and Pospahala (1970). Thus, the survey designÃ will involve at least 20 transects that will be oriented north to south across the Refuge and spacedÃ 150 feet apart. Total transect length will depend on the desired coefficient of variation (described below). Transects will be systematically overlaid a map of the Refuge prior to the start of the project to avoid bias in the way of vegetation or land use gradients (Figure 1). A transect will be randomly selected and a subsequent transect 150 feet away will be walked. This method will be followed in a sequential manner until all transects have been walked (Anderson and Pospahala, 1970; Buckland et al., 2001). Figure 1: Potential configuration of line transects throughout the Monte Vista NationalÃ Wildlife Refuge The Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge is home to several species of migratory waterfowl such as ducks and geese that rely on the refuge for breeding. Some species arrive on the refuge earlier than others. To mitigate the possibility of not detecting nests due to waterfowl arrival, this project will collect data twice a year, once during mid-May and once between mid-July to mid- August (Monte Vista, 2017). Sampling effort, and consequently cost, depends on the acceptable amount of uncertainty (randomness) in the density estimates. The coefficient of variation (CV) measures the uncertainty of the density estimate. Meaning that it measures how much the density estimate would change if the data were collected again (Burnham et al., 1980; Buckland et al., 2001; Schnupp, 2017a). The greater the variation in the estimate, the farther the estimate is from the true value. To control for fluctuations in variation, this project will utilize a systematic survey design with many transects (large sample size) and each transect will aim to have similar encounter rates (Figure 1). For ease of navigation and repeatability, pre-established transects will be uploaded through Mapwel 2016 to Garmin Etrex GPS units (Garmin International Incorporated, Olathe, Kansas). For each nest detected, the perpendicular distance from the center of the nest to the transect line, nest state (depredated or successful), and waterfowl type (duck or non-duck) will be recorded. Program DISTANCE 7.0 (Buckland et al., 2001) will be used to calculate overall nest density, density of successful nests, and density of depredated nests for both waterfowl types. If strong habitat differences are encountered during the survey, stratification will be used in post- processing of the data to reduce variation and improve the precision of density estimates. Data will be pooled from all transects to increase model robustness. Data pooling helps even out minor fluctuations in object density between transects and lead to more precise density estimations (Fewster et al., 2005). Various detection functi ons will be evaluated in DISTANCE, including uniform, half-normal, hazard rate, and negative exponential with simple polynomial, hermite polynomial, or cosine adjustments. A detection function will be selected from the competing models using Akaikes Information Criterion (AIC) values and goodness of fit using Chi-square analysis (Buckland et al., 2001). ExpectedÃ ResultsÃ andÃ Benefits Given that nest success is viewed as empirical evidence for reproduction success and population status, it is imperative that estimates of density be as accurate as possible. The proposed research will (1) analyze the effectiveness of line transect distance sampling versus strip transect sampling and (2) provide an accurate, efficient, and cost-effective method to determine waterfowl nest success and distribution on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, USA. Upon confirmation of funding, research protocols will be refined in consultation with Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge personnel and Colorado Parks and Wildlife. Annual progress reports will be submitted and a final report detailing findings and recommendations will be submitted within 1 year of contract completion. Research results will be presented at professional scientific meetings and published in peer-reviewed scientific journals where Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge will be acknowledged as a major funding contributor. Additionally, if desired, one or more Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge employees will be listed as a coauthor in all presentations and publications. Project deliverables will include: Ph.D. dissertation and corresponding scientific publications Scientific presentations at state, regional, and international conferences (undergraduate and graduate) Spreadsheets for calculation of density estimates Technical bulletin comparing the efficacy of estimating nest density using distance sampling with line transects and strip transects. EndangeredÃ SpeciesÃ Considerations This section is not applicable to the proposed project.Ã NecessityÃ andÃ EthicalÃ UseÃ ofÃ Animals This study will determine nest success and estimate of density of waterfowl on the Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado, USA. All necessary precautions will be utilized to avoid harm to waterfowl during this study; however, an Animal Care and Use Form is being submitted with this proposal for research approval. Personnel The principal investigator of this study will be Nicole J. Traub, M.S. and the project will involve 1 Ph.D. candidate. Additionally, 5 part-time student workers will be hired to assist with research activities and data collection. Budget All items are budgeted for 2x year sampling 5%CV 10%CV 20%CV 25%CV 281.32 LINE ITEM Transect miles 7,032.97 1,758.24 439.56 Sampling hours 2,344.32 586.08 146.52 93.77 Sampling time (in days) 173 22 11 7 Salary/undergraduate 3,751.36 936.32 234.08 152.00 Salary/year (5 undergraduates) 18,756.80 4,681.60 1,170.4 760.00 Salary/P.I. 16,200.00 16,200.00 16,200.00 16,200 Fringe (0.7% salary) 244.70 146.17 114.22 118.72 Medical 13,108.3 4,741.30 4,741.30 3,346.80 Field supplies 3,000.00 3,000.00 1,000.00 1,000.00 Lodging 10,034.00 1,276.00 638.00 406.00 Expected mileage 13,872.40 1,645.6 1,754.80 1,193.8 Mileage reimbursement 6,936.20 1,288.6 877.40 596.90 Yearly Budget $95,454.05 $36,281.91 $27,327.28 $24,156.31 Total Expenses $286,362.15 $108,845.73 $81,981.84 $72,468.93 (3 Yearbudget) LiteratureÃ Cited Ã Ã Anderson, D.R. and R.S. Pospahala. 1970. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects. The Journal of Wildlife Management 34(1):141-146. Beauchamp, W. D., R.R. Koford, T. D. Nudds, R. G. Clark, and D.H. Johnson. 1996. Long-term declines in nest success of prairie ducks. The Journal ofWildlife Management 60 (2):Ã 247-257. Buckland, S. T., D. R. Anderson, K. P. Burnham, J. L. Laake, D. L. Borchers, and L. Thomas. 2001. Introduction to distance sampling estimating abundance of biological populations. OxfordÃ University Press, New York, USA. 432p. Burnham, K. P., D. R. Anderson. 1984. The need for distance data in transect counts. TheÃ Journal ofWildlife Management 48 (4):1248-1254. Burnham, K. P., D. R. Anderson, and J. L. Laake. 1980. Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations. Wildlife Monographs. (72):3-202. Fewster, R.M., J. L. Laake, and S. T. Buckland. 2005. Line transect sampling in small and large regions. Biometrics. 61 (3):856-859. Johnson, D.H. 1979. Estimating nest success: The Mayfield Method and an alternative. TheAukÃ 96 (4):651-661. Klett, A.T., H.F. Duebbert, C. A. Faanes, and K.F. Higgins. 1986. Techniques for studying nest success of duck in upland habitats in the Prairie Pothole region. Resource PublicationÃ 158. 24 p. Marshall, A.R., J. C. Lovett, and P.C.L. White. Selection of line-transect methods for estimating the density of group-living animals: lessons from primates. 2008. AmericanJournal of Primatology70:452-462. Monte Vista. 2017. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge. https://www.fws.gov/refuge/Monte_Vista/wildlife_and_habitat/index.html. Newson, S. E., K. L. Evans, D. G. Noble, J. J. D. Greenwood, and K. J. Gaston. 2008. Use of distance sampling to improve estimates of national population sizes for common and widespread breeding birds in the UK. Journal of Applied Ecology45:1330-1338. Schnupp, M. 2017a. Sample units and transect design. PowerPoint presentation. Estimating Wildlife Populations course-WSCI 6390. http://schnuppconsulting.com/wp- content/uploads/2017/01/2-Sample-Units-Transect-Design.pdf. Schnupp, M. 2017b. Distance Sampling Assumptions. PowerPoint presentation. Estimating Wildlife Populations course-WSCI 6390. http://schnuppconsulting.com/wp- content/uploads/2017/01/4-Distance-Sampling-Assumptions.pdf.
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Music I associate with from my early childhood would be so many different songs from like the alphabet songs. When I grew up we were not allowed watching TV so much in the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s. But we watched some cartoons like the SurfÃ¢â¬â¢s on Saturday mornings; I still remember the song Fa-la-la-la. I grew up listing to reggae and oldies but goodies music on my parents little radio in the living room. When I hear these songs I have a smile on my face. It always reminded me when my children was listening to some of the same kind of music either on Television or radio or when they watched cartoons like Old MacDonald or Bitsy Spider with the same good old folk rhymes. As I got older I remember listening to bands like the S. O. S. , Dazz band. My mom always made me play her cassette deck with her oldies or reggae music while she cleaned the house top to bottom. She always danced around while she was cleaning and it made cleaning looked like so much fun. And to this day if I help my wife with house chores I listen to the same kind of music then my mother was listening to. My daughter is the exact same way; she plays music all the times. The Music I associate with my adolescence is R&B disco music from the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s and 90Ã¢â¬â¢s. I loved mostly all of them and I would listen to any songs Ã¢â¬Å"I want to be your manÃ¢â¬ by Rogers or Keith Sweat Ã¢â¬Å"Make it last foreverÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Between the sheetsÃ¢â¬ by The Isley Brothers, I could just go on and on. I went through many phases where I start listening to Madonna or country music and different artists like them, but I believe it had something do to with being a young boy growing up. Up to this day I could listen to all the same artists, bands or songs and think about the carefree days I had and being a high school boy being crazy with all my friends. But there was a time in my life where I was real crazy and just listening to rap music and started using the bad words and believe me that was not for long because my mother got rid of all my rap music quickly. And now if my children would listen to some rap music I tell them please not in my home. When it comes to comfort in music I always find myself going back and listen to oldies or reggae that was alwaysÃ playing when my mother was cleaning the house. It was an everyday thing for my mom because it seemed that our home was never clean enough for her because we were six children coming in from football fields dirty or the backyard. But anytime I came into the house the same oldies or reggae music was playing, it was either Bob MarleyÃ¢â¬ Buffalo SoldiersÃ¢â¬ or the oldies songÃ¢â¬ LetÃ¢â¬â¢s stay togetherÃ¢â¬ by Al Green When I have a bad day or just want to relax I find myself sitting down and turn on music and listen to the 70Ã¢â¬â¢s or 80Ã¢â¬â¢s songs, because that is what gets my head clear and then I can focus again. Happiness is a mood I would associate with songs or music that has a good rhythm and has a positive message. The song that makes me happy is Ã¢â¬Å"Buffalo SoldiersÃ¢â¬ by Bob Marley just like my mother, she would play that song over and over again. I would say that every genre and style of music has it songs that are happy, sad, comforting, depressing, fun and any other mood or feeling one could have. This is not because of how the song really sounds or the way itÃ¢â¬â¢s played, itÃ¢â¬â¢s the meaning from the lyrics. But the listener interprets the song in a way that only you can relate to. That is why music is so important to me because it can be a musical time line of our memories. I will always remember the music I grew up with and all the god times I had as a child and this is what I took into my Adulthood. In my life, music has been a constant, ever changing magical and amazing adventure. Music has always been a part of an everyday life for so many years and so many more years to come, because no matter if we understand the music that the one likes or not it does not matter to us. All we need to know is what we like and what impact music has on us. Music may make a person happy or sad because of the memories they re-live. No matter what it might be you must know that music is needed and wanted. References: Altschuler, R. J. (2009). The Art of Being Human: The Humanities as a Technique for Living. Retrieved from: www. youtube. com/watch? v=S5FCdx7Dn0o Retrieved from: www. youtube. com/watch? v=RCcg7ctrC4w.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
The amounts of bar presses for the different training schedules were compared. It was found that non-target behaviors were frequent during the first observation session, but as an association with bar pressing was formed, an increase In target behavior was observed. The IVR schedule produced more target behaviors, and when the reinforce was removed, target behavior decreased. The CRY rat appeared to learn the target behavior more quickly, and the target behavior became extinct more gradually. However, when the reward (virtual pellet) was taken away or decreased, the rats' target behavior decreased.Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 3 Method Participants The sample included fifteen students who shaped virtual rats named Ã¢â¬Å"Sniffs. Ã¢â¬ These students were In a Psychology 310 class at Clemson University. The class was made up of juniors and seniors In college. Two virtual rats were observed In this experiment using the Ã¢â¬Å"SniffsÃ¢â¬ program. These rats were considere d to be representative of the population because they were programmed to behave the way a Ã¢â¬Å"normal,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"averageÃ¢â¬ rat would. Materials or Apparatus A virtual Skinner Box was used in this procedure. In this box. Ere was a bar for the rat to press and a food dispenser ending at a hopper. Virtual pellets of food were also used In this experiment. Procedure This procedure was conducted In a laboratory setting as an observational study. The experiment consisted of two rats and was between-subject. Observations began with the fifteen students simply observing a virtual rat and recording behaviors that they could possibly study. These behaviors were: sniffing, walking, circling, cleaning, crouching, lying flat, and standing on hind legs. However, the definitions of these behaviors were arbitrary.Three behaviors (bar pressing, rearing, and grooming) were then operationally defined and became the focus of the virtual rats' behaviors. Bar pressing was operationally defined to be when Sniffs pressed the bar that would give him a virtual pellet. Rearing was operationally defined as Sniffs standing on his hind legs against a wall, but not his standing on his hind legs in the middle of the cage. Grooming was operationally defined as Sniffs cleaning his face with his front paws, but not any other type of cleaning behavior. One of the virtual rats Comparison exhibition of these three behaviors was taken from the fifteen students.This was done to define a baseline for Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ behavior in these virtual rats. Upon devising this baseline, the students shaped Ã¢â¬Å"SniffsÃ¢â¬ for 45 minutes on a continuous reinforcement schedule. The object of training the virtual rat was to teach him how to press the bar and, thus, receive a food pellet. To train him, the students pressed the bar every time Sniffs got close to the food hopper. This caused familiarity with the sound of a bar press, a connection of the sound and the food pellet, and eventually, the connection of the bar press and the food pellet.Thus, Sniffs was trained to press the bar to get food. Because of time constraints, no one in either group completely trained the virtual rats, but for ease of understanding, fully trained rats were used after this part of the procedure. This experiment was done with simulated hungry rats. The students then split up into groups of seven and eight to observe two different virtual rats. The group of seven observed a rat trained on a continuous reinforcement (CRY) schedule, and the group of eight observed a rat trained on a variable ratio-5 (IVR) schedule.The groups observed the virtual rats at different times, but each group observed for 30 minutes. The group observing the rat on a CRY schedule observed and recorded the number of bar presses their Sniffs displayed. The group observing the rat on a IVR schedule recorded the number of bar presses, rearing, and grooming behaviors exhibited by Sniffs. After the virtual rats were trained and observed, the students attempted to extinguish the behavior they trained Sniffs to perform. Both virtual rats were considered to be fully shaped at the beginning of this section of the study.The settings were changed on the Sniffs program so that there was no sound when the bar was pressed. The rats also did not receive any food pellets when they pressed he bar. The rats were observed for ten minutes each at different times. Bar pressing, rearing, Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 5 and grooming behaviors were recorded. Again, because of time constraints, neither rat became completely extinct in the ten minutes of observation, but completely extinct rats were used for the next section of the experiment. Extinction was defined as less than one bar press per minute for the rats.After behaviors for both rats were extinguished, they were placed on their previous schedules of reinforcement to measure recovery behavior. The rats ere observed for twelve minutes in attempt to retr ain them to press the bar for food. Once more, because of time constraints, the virtual rats were set back to full association of bar pressing with food for the remainder of the experiment. Finally, punishment took place. A fully trained CRY virtual rat and a fully trained IVR virtual rat were used in this section. High punishment was implemented for every time the rats pressed the bar.This punishment was a shock from the floor of the Skinner Box. Both rats received this treatment. Each of the rats was observed for five minutes. Bar reusing, rearing, and grooming behaviors were recorded during this time. It is believed that the rat may have thought it was still in extinction, and it is possible that the rat never actually gained the habit back. There were several confound that could have affected the results of this experiment. The lab assistant kept time by incorrect recording of data could have resulted from human error.At times, the virtual rats pressed the bar many times sequent ially, making it difficult to accurately record the data. In this study, the independent variable was the level of reinforcement the rats got when they pressed the bar; these levels were: no enforcement, CRY, IVR, and positive punishment. No reinforcement was used during baseline observations. CRY and IVR were used in training the rats to press the bar and again in recovery. Positive punishment was used in attempt to extinguish the learned behavior of bar pressing in the rats.The dependent variable was the virtual rats' pressing of the bar, Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 6 and data was collected. It is arguable that rearing and grooming behaviors were additional dependent variables, but the one being studied and compared was the bar pressing behavior. There were no ethical problems in this procedure. Virtual rats were used, so no live animals were in danger. These were the only participants in the experiment. The experimenters were also not in danger. The only possible issu e would be stress.The experimenters had a slight amount of stress on them to keep up with the bar presses of these rats. Other than this minor possible dilemma, the experiment was ethically sound. There was no compensation offered in this procedure, and very little bias was likely to play a role in the collection of data. Results Frequency behavior was observed and recorded during this experiment. The IVR rat's training included 118 bar presses for 45 minutes. A noticeable difference was found in the frequency of bar presses for the rat trained on a CRY schedule and the rat trained on a IVR schedule.Figure 1 shows the differences in baseline, CRY, and IVR rat observations of behaviors. Figure 2 gives a comparison of the extinction of the CRY and IVR trained rats. In the twelve minutes the students observed the IVR rat after extinction, no recovery was made. A slight recovery was made in the CRY rat. In the recovery after punishment, the IVR rat pressed the bar four times and did not receive a pellet. The data for all of the observations made can be found in Figure 3. Over all, the differing training techniques appeared to have affects on the response of virtual rats to the independent variable.Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 7 Discussion Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 focused on the observation section of the experiment to define a baseline. It was predicted that more non-target behaviors (rearing and grooming) would occur more often than the target behavior (bar pressing). As seen in Figure 1, the hypothesis was supported. The baseline included almost no bar presses and larger amounts of rearing and grooming. Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2 suggested that during shaping, there would be an increase in target behavior and a decrease in non-target behavior as an association was formed.This hypothesis was supported for the rat trained on a IVR schedule, but was not recorded for the rat trained on a CRY. These figures are recorded in Figure 1 . The fact that non-targ et behaviors were not recorded for the CRY rat Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3 stated that the rat trained on the IVR schedule would result in more bar presses per minute than the rat trained on the CRY scale. Again, Figure 1 shows this hypothesis to be true. There was a large difference in the amount of bar presses each of the rats exhibited. This is likely because the IVR rats had to press the bar for an unknown number of times in order to receive a food pellet.Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 8 Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4 stated that during extinction, the target behavior would increase with the removal of the reinforce. Figure 2 shows this to be true for both rats. When the rats had no motivation to press the bar, they lost interest. There were several extinction bursts, but after the tine often minutes ended, the rats had lost a considerable amount of interest in the target behavior. Implementation This project is applicable to humans in that it demonstrates support for the Beha vioral approach to psychology.A traditional Skinner Box was used, and the traditional ideas of providing reinforcement and punishment as a means of controlling behavior were applied. The ability to compare rat behavior to human behavior is questionable, but a widely- accepted theory was supported in this study. Strengths and Weaknesses This study was done in a small laboratory setting with only two rats. The small number of participants in this study ay be a hindrance in the application of the results to multiple facets. To generalize the study, more rats should be used to test the various shaping methods.Another weakness of this study is that the time measurement was imprecise. The time was kept by the lab assistant, and she occasionally forgot to call the time. Human error plays a part in this as well. Another factor human error likely played a part in is the collection of the data. Although the students were all specifically trying to be accurate in their recordings, it is not li kely that even a single person recorded all of the data refectory. One more weakness includes the fact that the non-target behaviors were not recorded during training of the CRY rat.The data would have been more easily compared if they were consistent across the experiment. Comparison of CRY and IVR After Shaping 9 A major strength in this procedure was the accuracy of averages across the data. Though there were slight differences in the reports of collected data, much of the numbers were close in range. Another strength in this experiment was that the rats being observed were modeled after live rats in a laboratory. Therefore, he experiment was able to be conducted without the use of live animals, and the reported data were likely similar to that from a study on live rats.Further Research This study would be interesting to implement in the lives of humans. Many would argue that rats are different from humans, and therefore, this behavior does not apply to humans. Shaping human beha vior would be difficult to test in a laboratory setting, but if possible, it would be interesting. Parallelism in the observation groups is a good idea to add to further studies. Because this study was missing a few observations, the data collected was less useful to those analyzing it.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Euthanasia: a Way to Save Patient Lives Some argue that physician assisted suicide (PAS) or Euthanasia is murder due to the decreasing value of life and the permitting doctors to kill. Societal and law change began first in Oregon, in 1994, when the Death with Dignity Act was passed. This act allows an Oregon resident, that has a terminal illness and fits a specific criteria, to have a lethal dose of medication to end their suffering. To date, five other states have joined Oregon in the legalization of physician assisted suicide in the United States. Leading to the question of, Ã¢â¬Å"why have the other states refused to join the six states that has legalized euthanasia?Ã¢â¬ Simultaneously, most states will answer with, Ã¢â¬Å"it is still murder,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦So the legality in PAS should be determined by the patient, in regards to their quality of life. Advocates against physician assisted suicide would then argue that society has been desensitized to death and violence and therefore donÃ¢â¬â¢t see it as murder. In the past few decades the entertainment industry has been showcasing death in increasingly violent and gory ways as it depicts more and more death in movies and TV shows. The rise of social media has also given rise to a barrage of Ã¢â¬Å"caught on videoÃ¢â¬ death and violence. Is there other ways of providing quality entertainment without all of the death that is involved? The exponential increase of popularity of showcasing death has also impacted how future forms of entertainment will be created. As seen in multiple movies and videogames using life and death as entertainment purposes has increased revenue streams. This argument that the growing trend of violence in our everyday lives has left mainstream society jaded and apathetic. So is it because of media that we are Ã¢â¬Å"cruelÃ¢â¬ or are we actually not as cruel as people make us to be? While it could be argued that while the modern U.S. society experiences increasing violence related stress, this o nly strengthens the argument for a personÃ¢â¬â¢s quality of life and the importance of it. With the recent passing of OregonÃ¢â¬â¢s Death with Dignity Act of 1994, people against PAS argue that the act has opened opportunities for brutalShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Speech Outline : Legalization Of Euthanasia1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArgumentative Speech Outline: Legalization of Euthanasia Lexie Phongthai-Yochum Topic: Legalizing Euthanasia General Purpose: To argue Specific Purpose: To argue that euthanasia should be made available for terminal patients to end their suffering. Thesis Statement: Euthanasia should be made legal for terminal patients to end their suffering because 1) people should have the right to choose, 2) it helps save lives through organ donation, and 3) it can be regulated. Introduction According toRead MoreEuthanasi An Ethical Principle956 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessuicide or undergo intentional euthanasia, which is a Greek word that means an action of deliberately ending a life to ease pain. Many nations have adopted different euthanasia regulations meant to help patients end suffering from dangerous maladies. The British government was among the pioneers of the law since it aimed to relieve intractable suffering of critically ill patients (Hendry 13). In some European nations, such as the Netherlands, a doctor at the request of a patient understands the principleRead MoreEuthanasia! First referred to by physicians in the 17th century as an easy, painless, happy death,800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEuthanasia! First referred to by physicians in the 17th century as an easy, painless, happy death, during which it was the physiciansÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibility to alleviate the physical sufferings of the body. Nowadays there are different definitions of euthanasia, varying from e ach countries jurisdiction. At present the law in the United Kingdom refers to euthanasia, regardless of whether it is at the patients request a criminal act and under current legislation can be treated as either murder or manslaughterRead MoreEuthanasi A More Humane Option For Suffering And Dying Patients1328 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Euthanasia would be a more humane option for suffering and dying patients. Afterall, death row inmates have the option of lethal injection because it is more humane, so why are competent patients not given the same option? Why do we allow people who committed serious crimes to have a humane death, but force innocent patients with severe illnesses, to suffer through the pain? Giving a suffering patient the option to end their misery in a relatively quick and painless way would not only ease theirRead MoreEuthanasia Organ Donation And The Effects On Organ Shortages1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesKiley Ferreira October 12, 2014 ENG106 Professor Tiedt Euthanasia Organ Donation and the Effects on Organ Shortages Ã¢â¬Å"The shortages in transplantable organs worldwide not only leads to unnecessary death, but also to grave human right abuses though illegal methods of procuring organsÃ¢â¬ (Statz, 2006, p. 1).With the decrease in solid organs available, the demand for organs increase and fail to meet the needs of patients facing organ failure. The only options to receive an organ includes receiving anRead MoreThe Controversial Topic of Euthanasia975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEuthanasia is a controversial topic throughout todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. As euthanasia is illegal in America, Singer fights for the legalization of voluntary euthanasia, which means the patients make voluntary request to be assisted to die. While religious views value that the life cannot be taken away so easily, Singer focuses on the human rights that enable their choices to die or not to die. However, I do not agree with singerÃ¢â¬â¢s respect for autonomy on the issue of voluntary euthanasia because this issueRead MoreEuth anasia Is Morally Right Or Wrong?1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhether euthanasia is morally right or wrong in society. This act of euthanasia is used on patients to end their suffering of terminal illnesses. It is sometimes requested but also, being that there is multiple types such as voluntary, involuntary, Nonvoluntary, active, and passive euthanasia, in some cases is given without the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s actual request and consent. In some ways, it has seemed to become an alternative for people who are suffering and feel they have no other options. Although some mayRead MoreEuthanasia, An Eloquent Word1217 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEuthanasia, an eloquent word with such a dark meaning. Some may have heard it, some may not. Euthanasia is defined as the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Like other terms borrowed from history, euthanasia has had different meanings depending on usage. The first apparent usage of the term euthanasia belongs to t he historian Suetonius, who described how the Emperor Augustus, dying quickly and without suffering in the arms of his wife, Livia, experiencedRead MoreEuthanasi A Controversial Issue Around The World1461 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSince euthanasia first appeared in the nineteenth century, it has become a controversial issue around the world. Euthanasia, the Ã¢â¬Å"mercy killingÃ¢â¬ , relieve those who are suffering from disease or when they are on terminal stage by ending the life of a person intentionally (Ã¢â¬Å"EuthanasiaÃ¢â¬ ). In some countries such as the Netherlands and Belgium have legalized euthanasia under certain circumstances. However, active euthanasia is not yet legal in China and it seems to be against traditional Chinese conceptsRead MoreEuthanasia Essay1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEuthanasia In this term paper I have chosen to speak about euthanasia because this is a topic that provokes as much controversy as capital punishment, primarily because it is irreversible. The question of euthanasia being right or wrong is one that most would prefer left alone. My purpose here in this term paper is to show forth view points of both sides of the arguments and finally conclude with my views on the topic. Let me start by explaining what is the exact
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Rodney Comeaux was full of complicated health problems since when he was young. Diagnosed with Sickle Cell Anemia at an early age of six months, Rodney was never in perfect health. Sickle Cell Anemia (or SCA) is a genetic abnormality in the blood which is incurable. He had continuously suffered from pneumonia bouts and the anemia predicaments. During the month of June in 1988, Rodney, aged twenty-three by then, complained of chest pains and stomach discomforts. He was brought to the defendant Tulane Medical Center for admission. Dr. Abe Andes, the medical director of the hospital, attended to him. Released from the medical confinement on July 6, 1988, Rodney was prescribed an oral antibiotic called Keflex. He was advised to come back for an appointment with Dr. Andes on July 12 of that same year, specifically at two-thirty in the afternoon of that date. Dr. Andes wrote down his findings as pulmonary infarction versus pneumonia. Before Dr. Andes, Rodney Comeaux was being treated at the SCA clinic by a certain Dr. Frempong, the director of the said clinic. It was only in 1986 that Dr. We will write a custom essay sample on Nuances of Medical Malpractice Law or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Andes took over from Dr. Frempong. Hours before the designated visit on July 12, 1988, Rodney showed up at the SCA clinic where he complained of chest pain and request to meet Dr. Andes. The latter was then preoccupied with attending to other patients who had prior appointments. It was therefore that Rodney Comeaux was not able to see Dr. Andes at that moment. Rodney left and proceeded to the office of her mother, Ms. Shiela Webb. Ms. Webb was then the Deputy Director of Health for the City of New Orleans and working with one Dr. Brobson Lutz, an internal medicine doctor at the Charity Hospital. Dr. Lutz rushed Rodney to the emergency room of the Tulane Medical Center at about past noon. This time the patient complained of having difficulty breathing and that his chest was hurting. It was found out that he was suffering from multiple pulmonary infarctions in his lungs. He was brought to a room in the hospital.
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Overview Web Services Security has developed, implement, and will maintain a policy to ensure that appropriate safeguard measures are taken to be in compliance with American Legal System. OrganizationÃ¢â¬â¢s Position Web Services Security uses a risk-based approach to determining system security requirements to ensure that security is commensurate with the risk and magnitude of harm that can result from the loss, misuse, or unauthorized access to, or modification of, each of the following laws; GLBA, PCI, FERPA, HIPAA, SOX Policy The requirements to perform in this policy contained in the Web Services Security Program Handbook and are in compliance with the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) requires financial institutions or companies that offer consumers financial products or services like loans, financial or investment advice, or insurance to explain their information-sharing practices to their customers and to safeguard sensitive data. (Gramm-Leach-Bliley- Act, 2015) o Critical steps Web Services Security lacks - this law is not one that would be required by our company o Measures and processes to put in place to ensure our business is compliance Ã¢â¬â there are no measures to be processed Ã¢â¬ ¢ Payment Card Industry Security Standards Council (PCI) is a set of requirements designed to ensure that ALL companies that process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment. Essentially any merchant that has a Merchant ID (MID) (PCI ComplianceShow MoreRelatedTop Three Trends in your profession and associated industry Annotated Bibliography1499 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin your profession and associated industry-Annotated Bibliography The top three trends in the Cyber Security field are salary, career advancement, and the need for predictions of the future in how information is exchanged. Cyber-crimes are becoming more popular and because of the many attacks that are happening much more frequently it has caused for a higher demand in cyber security professionals. Companies spend millions of dollars to correct security breaches within their organization. Back inRead MoreEssay about Annotated Bibliography on Information Technology768 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnnotated Bibliography on Information Technology Mobile Security in the Future Adesina, A. O., Agbele, K. K., Februarie, R., Abidoye, A. P., amp; Nyongesa, H. O. (2011). Ensuring the security and privacy of information in mobile health-care communication systems. South African Journal of Science, 107(9), 26-32. This research article examines the security concerns of using mobile technology systems in health care institution. Various methods of ensuring privacy and security of patientÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography : Literacy As Foreign Aid704 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesAustin Hammond ENGL 2311.350 Dr. Gregory September 25, 2014 Annotated Bibliography: Literacy as Foreign Aid to Developing Nations Abosi, Okey. Educating Children With Learning Disabilities In Africa. Learning Disabilities Research Practice (Wiley-Blackwell) 22.3 (2007): 196-201. Academic Search Complete. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. Abosi addresses the concern of children in African classrooms that are challenged with learning disorders and examines the diverse contributing factors such as: healthRead MoreThe Internet And Its Impact On Society1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprivileges if they did not exist. A web server is a client/server process. It uses a specific software to fulfill a clientÃ¢â¬â¢s web page request by finding, selecting, and forming the web page to be transmitted to the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s device. This would be from the time that a client makes a request until they receive the information. This paper will discuss the following subtopics: the past, present, and future of web servers, including other competing technologies; what constitutes a web server; and conclude with anRead MoreAustralia And The United States1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAustralia and the United States have always had a very strong relationship through trade and mainly defence. The security of Australia heavily depends on the US, a s we are there main allies in defence. Australia and the US are both apart of an organization called APEC. They both have very important roles as there are classified as the head nations. This organization first started in January 1989 in Australia when current prime minister Bob Hawke called for a more effective economic operation acrossRead MoreAn Examination On Criteria Of Enterprise System Security3105 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesoffers security and also client comfort. So to begin an examination on criteria of Enterprise System Security I chose a theme that is Present to Your Own Device. BYOD (bring your own gadget) is the expanding pattern toward worker claimed gadgets inside of a business. Cell phones are the most widely recognized case yet representatives additionally take their own Tablets, Laptops and USB crashes into the working environment. BYOD is one of the most sweltering subjects in big business security. NotwithstandingRead MoreFast Food Nation Essay804 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesfamily by offering cheap value meals which keeps fast foods chains still striving and remain popular. Fast food has become a comfort food during struggling economic hardship can provide comfort and reduce stress, increase satisfaction feeling and security. With promotions items or dollar value meals, some families which eat at fast food restaurant can find it cheaper to eat their rather than going to local grocery store and purchase food for the family. Another reas on fast foods restaurants have beenRead MoreImmigration Struggles: an Annotated Bibliography1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImmigration Struggles: An Annotated Bibliography Abrego, Leisy. Legitimacy, Social Identity, and the Mobilization of Law: The Effects of Assembly Bill 540 on Undocumented Students in California. Law Social Inquiry 33.3 (2008): 709-734. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 3 Apr. 2010. This journal article was written by Leisy Abrego about the effects of AB 540 on undocumented students in California, which I found in EBSCO. The journal talks about how the AB 540 helps undocumentedRead MoreThe Global Economic Crime Survey1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ã¢â¬Æ' Introduction Lately, a variety of information security threats have advanced. Denial of Service (DoS) attacks have been the most damaging according to security specialists. A Denial of Service attack is a way of blocking service from intended users. The severity of this attack varies with the magnitude of the target and the length of the attack. DoS attacks also include Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks which do damage on a larger scale. These DDoS attacks consist of many systemsRead More Networking Report Essay6037 Words Ã |Ã 25 PagesCLIENT/SERVER 14.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;DISADVANTAGES OF CLIENT/SERVER NETWORKS 15.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;NETWORK FEATURES OF CLIENT/SERVER 1 FILE SHARING 2 PRINTER SHARING 3 APPLICATION SERVICES 4 E-MAIL 16.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;THE INTERNET 17.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;NETWORK SECURITY 18.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;WORKSTATION HARDWARE 19.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;BUS TOPOLOGY 20.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;STAR TOPOLOGY 21.nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;RING TOPOLOGY